Biology Essays and Research Papers

Madagascar Rainforest of Atsinanana
The relict rainforests are significant ecologically, maintaining biological process which are vital for the survival of Madagascar’s unique biodiversity. The country’s biodiversity reflects not only its geological history, but also its geographic placement. Madagascar completed its separation from all other land masses sixty to eighty million years ago, therefore the island’s plant and animal life evolved in isolation. The rainforests’ significance lies in their ecological and…
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WA 7
10. Do you believe that the human population can stabilize without widespread starvation, war or epidemics? A. Yes, by increasing the standard of living, couples have fewer children than those living in poverty. This can help stabilize the human population. 11. Is the clapper rail headed for extinction or is the species having a temporary decline due to excessive predation, lack of resources, a disruption in the lower trophic levels, or some other reason? Explain your answer as it relates to…
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Green Sea Turtles
The part of the shell that is on the dorsal (back) side is known as the carapace. This portion is heart shaped and is as long as 5 feet. It is covered with large scales which are called scutes. The ventral part of the shell that covers the belly is known as the plastron. The dorsal and ventral parts are connected to each other at sides through hard-shelled plates which are known as lateral bridges. The connection between the carapace and plastron breaks at openings for head, tail and limbs. The…
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Follow PDF insturtion
This does not mean that it includes all winged insects; it just includes primitive ones. Paleoptera and Neoptera differ to each other in their wing articulation. The subclass Pterygota has two further divisions called the Exopterygota and the Endopterygota. Exopterygota insects have life cycles that pass through three stages – egg, nymph and adult. A larger number of insects such as Roaches and Mantids; Dragonflies and Damselflies; Crickets, Grasshoppers and Locusts; True Bugs are part of…
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The dormant state of Tuberculosis
In drawing conclusions from the in vivo models during experimental processes, Wayne (1994) indicated that there was a capacity for prolonged periods (even decades) of dormant or latency, inactivity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and this accounted for increasing development of active tuberculosis in elderly individuals. This was concluded to be associated with age-related decline in the individual’s immune response system. (p. 909). Dick, T. & the British Society for Antimicrobial…
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DNA repair mechanisms role in survival to nucleoside analogues treatment in S.pombe
Two methods of treatment where this is especially important to consider are topoisomerase inhibitors and nucleoside analogues. In both of these cases, DNA repair systems involve the use of the Mre11/Rad50/NBS1 complex. This project aims to examine how DNA repair mechanisms of Schizosaccharomyces pombe contribute to resistance to treatment with nucleoside analogues. This information should help to provide further insight into the way in which human cells are able to develop resistance to this…
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Review the mechanisms of protein folding
In today’s post-genomic world, understanding protein folding has never been more important. The topic has wide-ranging impacts in fields from structural biology to materials science” (Radford 2000). Key concepts and terminology used during the biophysics of in vitro analysis of protein folding – hydrophobic collapse, nucleation growth, Framework model, molten globules – are illustrated in Figure 1.2. The Anifinsen Experiments (Fig. 1.2) demonstrate the ‘Framework model’ of…
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Why Evolution Is True
However, the fossil record displays patterns that are not expected under common ancestry. This includes the appearance of the higher metazoan taxonomic categories before the lower categories and patterns of saltations followed by statis. This brings about issues of controversy. Despite this finding, this is not always the case, as fossils which do not match the fossils are scarcely discovered. Coyne stresses on the fossil record in this chapter are based on convergent evolution. As he states,…
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Leopards and Humans Conflict in india
The topic of human-wild life conflicts is a burning issue in not only developing nations but developed states like the US sometimes are also faced with situations whereby wild animals such as wolves and Pumas leave their protected areas onto human territories (Athreya et al.). In states such as California, mountain lions are the main wild animals that instill fear to the residents since they are a common threat. Conversely, a continent such as Africa, the level of human-wildlife conflict is…
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The effects of ageing on Alzheimer's Disease
SIR2 is one such gene whose expression is known to increase lifespan by acting on biological processes (Hekimi & Guarente,2003). Almost 25 million people around the world have been diagnosed with dementia and most of these cases are that of Alzheimer’s alone (Qui et al,2009). It has been projected by the US centre for Diseases control and Prevention and the UN Aging program that the number of older people afflicted by Alzheimer’s would be nearly 1 billion by 2030(CDCP,2008 & UNO, 2001).…
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An Report on the Biogeography of Tideswell Dale, Peak District
Availability of water and nutrients in usable form will determine the species of organism that inhabit an environment (Redfield 1958). Physical attributes of an environment like density of the surface and temperature will also determine the distribution of organisms. Consequently aquatic mammals like the stellar sea lion have developed streamline bodies that enable them to move in water; organisms will also freeze in low temperatures and overheat in high temperatures losing function, species…
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1.Water should be privatized rather than made a public good. 2.Water should be piped out of the Great Lakes to provide to water-restricted states
Water is a limited natural resource and humankind should handle it carefully. If water provided to homes for household activities fail to become an economic good and hence remains unmetered, Americans tend to misuse the water and once they fail to pay attention to the quantity of water they are using, they make water unavailable for the rest of the market that needs it. If private companies do not take management of water supply, the state government will continue giving subsidies to farmers…
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Wetlands
A wetland can be further classified according to its soil type, plants and the water chemistry (Gibbons, 1998). Swamps They are also referred to as forested wetlands and occur along river courses. The vegetation is mainly composed of trees and shrubs such as cedars, dogwood, cotton wood and spruce, among others. The vegetation growing under the trees is dense and offers food and cover for the diverse wildlife habitats. Bogs Bogs occur in cool wet areas where there is poor drainage. The water…
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The role of immune therapy in breast cancer
The constituents that make up the system normally remain silent. However, when the system is initiated, the constituents activate, proliferate, and create the effective mechanisms that can fight effectively against the microbes thereby eliminating or neutralizing the microbes. Adaptive immune responses are of two types – humoral immunity produces B lymphocytes mediated by antibodies, and cell mediated immunity, which is reconciled by T lymphocytes (Mooi 2010; The innate and adaptive immune…
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