PTSD course, chronicity and comorbidity, symptom overlap with psychiatric disorders, socio-political and cultural factors that may differ over time and nation issues may affect prevalence (Richardson, 2010). Etiology Development of PTSD after serious injury may be related to age, gender, other injury like brain injury and clinical characteristics. Elevation of symptoms and diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder after deployment may be increased significantly by low mental and physical status during pre-combat exposure. New onset post-traumatic stress disorder can target and help identify the most vulnerable who can benefit from intervention (LeardMann, Smith, Smith, Wells, & Ryan, 2009). Immediate onset and delayed onset PTSD had the same number and type of symptoms which were reported at the beginning.
The delayed group differed since they showed progressive accumulation of symptoms that began earlier and continued throughout the military career. Prior to PTSD onset, this group was more likely to report depression and alcohol abuse. They were also more likely to report shame, dissociation and peri-traumatic dissociation. Both the immediate and delayed onset of PTSD groups described same amounts of trauma exposure. Veterans with delayed onsets were more likely than veterans with no PTSD to report the presence of severe, life stressor in the year before the onset.
Therefore, the results indicate that delayed onsets experience a high sensitivity to the general stress and a slow, gradual failure to adapt to stress exposure that is continuous (Andrews, Brewin, Stewart, Rosanna, & Hejdenberg, 2009). Treatment Psychological treatments that are trauma focused are more effective in PTSD. This means that treatments that do not focus on the patients’ trauma memories are usually less effective. International treatment guidelines therefore recommend trauma focused psychological treatments as first-line PTSD.
Both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapies are current treatments for PTSD. Diverse drugs are used to treat symptoms of PTSD, however the efficiency is limited. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) that are sertraline and paroxetine are the only medications used for indication by FOOD and Drug Administration (FDA). The most extensively recognized methods of psychotherapy for PTSD are cognitive behavior therapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy and Eye Movement Desensitization and Processing (EMDR), (Mithoefer, Wagner, Mithoefer, Jerome, & Doblin, 2011).