S brain or neurotransmitter dysfunction a cause or correlate of disorders such as depression and anxiety – Essay Example

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

II. Discussion The question is whether there is a correlation relationship or a causal relationship between neurotransmitter dysfunction and disorder states such as anxiety and depression, among others. There is evidence in the literature of a neurotransmitter basis to disease states, including for instance borderline personality disorder or BPD. The neurobiological foundation of such illnesses is established from a variety of perspectives, including assays, imaging studies, studies on the density of receptors, paradigms that challenge neuroendocrine systems, and those perspectives point to many neurotransmitter systems that have an association relationship with borderline personality disorder.

In people with this disease, there is a disregulation of the systems of neurotransmitters. The thinking is that since neurotransmitter systems that are inherited along family lines can form the basis of the transmission of disease states through the generations of families is some indication that there is a causal relationship, though this is not conclusively determined, and it may be that both the existence of the dysfunctions in the neurotransmitter systems and the existence of the borderline personality disorder stem from some other cause, and that both meanwhile are correlative of each other (Gurvits et al.

2000). On the other hand, literature exists that suggests a causal relationship, not directly, but to be inferred from the way interventions for such aspects of Alzheimers and Parkinsons as dysfunction of the cognitive processes in patients with those diseases. Interventions for such cognitive dysfunction conditions include suggestions to tweak neurotransmitter mechanisms in certain parts of the brain, As the literature notes, there may be value in treating such dysfunctions in cognition by looking at the way some receptors can be changed in particular ways to tweak, so to speak, and correct the condition in such areas of the brain as the mesolimbic circuits nd the frontal-striatal parts of the brain and the neurotransmitter pathways in those regions, among others.

The implicit assumption here is that there is a causal relationship between the dysfunction of the neurotransmitters in those regions on the one hand and the dysfunction in cognition in those persons afflicted by certain degenerative diseaeses like Alzheimers. This is so, because tweaks in the neurotransmitter systems in those brain parts are said to show promise in correcting the cognitive dysfunction and restoring sound cognition mechanisms in patients with brain disorders like Alzheimer; s (Xu et al.

References

Bartus, R. et al. (1982). The Cholinergic Hypothesis of Geriatric Memory Dysfunction. Science 217 (30). [Online] Available from: http://worldtrackerorg.worldtracker.netdna-cdn.com/media/library/Science/Science%20Magazine/science%20magazine%201981-1982/Science%201981-1982/root/data/Science_1981-1982/pdf/1982_v217_n4558/p4558_0408.pdf [Accessed 28 April 2014]

Butterworth, R. (2001). Neurotransmitter Dysfunction in Hepatic Encephalopathy: New Approaches and Findings. Metabolic Brain Disease 16. [Online] Available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1011614528751#page-1 [Accessed 28 April 2014]

Cha, J. et al. (1998). Altered brain neurotransmitter receptors in transgenic mice expressing a portion of an abnormal human Huntington disease gene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95 (11). [Online] Available from: http://www.pnas.org/content/95/11/6480.full [Accessed 28 April 2014]

CenterSite (2014). Biology of Depression- Neurotransmitters. MentalHelp,net. [Online] Available from: http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=12999&cn=5 [Accessed 28 April 2014]

Gurvits, I. et al. (2000). Neurotransmitter dysfunction in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 23 (1). [Online] Available from: http://www.psych.theclinics.com/article/S0193-953X%2805%2970141-6/abstract [Accessed 28 April 2014]

Kaslow, J. (2013). Neurotransmitter Repletion. DrKaslow.com. [Online] Available from: http://www.drkaslow.com/html/neurotransmitter_repletion.html [Accessed 26 April 2014]

National Institutes of Health (n.d.). What is Depression? NIH. [Online] Available from: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/depression/index.shtml [Accessed 26 April 2014]

National Treatment Centers for Environmental Disease (2014). Neurotransmitter Dysfunction. NTCED.org. [Online] Available from: http://ntced.org/diagnosing-mold-exposure/neurotransmitter-dysfunction/ [Accessed 26 April 2014]

Reynolds, G. et al. (1999). Brain Neurotransmitter Deficits in Mice Transgenic for the Huntington’s Disease Mutation. Journal of Neurochemistry 72 (4). [Online] Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1471-4159.1999.721773.x/full [Accessed 28 April 2014]

Stein, G. (2013). Neurotransmitter-related diseases and regulatory states.. AlvinSteinMD. [Online] Available from: http://www.stgregoryctr.com/neurochemical-therapy/ [Accessed 28 April 2014]

St. Gregory Retreat Center (2014). Neurochemical Therapy. StGregoryCtr. [Online] Available from: http://www.stgregoryctr.com/neurochemical-therapy/ [Accessed 28 April 2014]

Xu, Y. et al. (2012). Neurotransmitter receptors and cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disease. Progress in Neurobiology 97 (1). [Online] Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301008212000214 [Accessed 28 April 2014]

Yamamoto, A. et al. (2000). Reversal of Neuropathology and Motor Dysfunction in a Conditional Model of Huntingtons Disease. Cell 101 (1). [Online] Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867400806236 [Accessed 28 April 2014]

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us