According to Dali, “People only see stereotyped images of things, pure shadows empty of any expression, pure phantoms, and they find vulgar and normal everything they are used to seeing often, however marvelous and miraculous it may be” (1). Hence, it is apparent that Dali’s objective is to revive reality as awe-inspiring, and this implies portrayal in a paramount vividly naturalistic manner he could master: commonplace, usually identifiable items, in plain radiance, casting brilliant shadows. Husserl, a philosopher, formulated a watchword which states that “to the things themselves” and the phenomenological method, which he designed, involved a definite deferral of belief and a surrendering of thyself to untainted experience (Dawn, 1982).
The disparity between the phenomenological and the critic-paranoid schemes lie in this fact, that Husserl aimed to capture the world as perfectly as it exhibits itself to the unbiased eyes, as if to a visual tool; whilst Dali, having counteracted the conventionality of common sense, viewed the world as if it is external to his mind, letting all his anxieties and trepidations, his inhibited desires and feral organizations, to submerge again into reality, hence the world becomes the stage of purposeful dread and terrifying accomplishments (Sarane, 1970).
As Dali had movingly put it in plain words, “My things… are anti-artistic and direct. They move and are understood instantaneously, without the slightest technical training” (Danto, 1994: 2). For Dali, artistic training is actually the foremost impediment in seeing the truth behind the façade of a work of art. Dali made his crafts devoid of enthusiasm or animation, so that the eyes do not deviate from the objects exposed, pronouncing as it were, that the most important element is the thing that is directly shown, and the image being a nonentity of its own to contribute to individual experiences, and the picture being empty other than its substance (Nadeau, 1989). The unconventional and rather liberal techniques of Salvador Dali have wide-ranging repercussions to each of the various types of art, specifically in graphic arts, photography and cinema.
II. Concrete Art and Autonomous Graphic Art It had become progressively more obvious that non-representational appearances have the capability of optical magnetism, which, nevertheless, has power over extremely different degrees of success, which is reliant in each case on the process the artist has handled the pristine form and pure color (Stube, 1963).
Ades, Dawn. Dali. London: Thames and Hudson, 1982.
Alexandrian, Sarane. Surrealist Art. London: Thames and Hudson, 1970.
Bray, Christopher. "Dream Catcher: In Cinema, Salvador Dali Found the Ideal Medium." New Statesman 136.4848 (2007).
Danto, Arthur C. "Salvador Dali." The Nation 259.6 (1994).
Duran, Gloria. "The Antipodes of Surrealism: Salvador Dali and Remedios Varo." Symposium 42.4 (1989).
Fotiade, Ramona. "The Slit Eye, the Socrpion and the Sign of the Cross: Surrealist Film Theory and Practice Revisited." Screen (1998).
Fox, Brian J. "Reality Transformed: Film as Meaning and Technique." The Review of Metaphysics 54.2 (2000).
Janson, H.W. History of Art. New York: Abrams, 1962.
Melly, George. Paris and the Surrealists. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1991.
Murray, Chris. Key Writers on Art: The Twentieth Century. London: Routledge, 2003.
Nadeau, Maurice. The History of Surrealism. Cambridge, MA: Belknap, 1989.
Newhall, Beaumont. Photography: A Short Critican History. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1938.
Russell, John. The Meanings of Modern Art. New York: The Museum of Modern Art and Harper and Row, 1981.
Savedoff, Barbara. Transforming Images: How Photography Complicates the Picture. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000.
Shawcross, Nancy. Roland Barthes on Photography: The Critical Tradition in Perspective. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1997.
Stubbe, Wolf. Graphic Arts in the Twentieth Century. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1963.
Tudor, Andrew. Theories of Film. New York: Viking Press, 1974.