1. To what extent has history shaped the state of Africa in the twenty-first century Discuss with reference to two countries – Research Paper Example

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The U-boats of Germany make it impossible for the imperialists to plunder the raw material of Africa and resultantly it was used within the geographical territories of Africa which enhanced the urbanization and literacy rate in Africa. A literate and urban Africa was against slavery and decided to defend its territorial integrity. Case Studies of Congo and Nigeria Democratic Republic of Congo: The area presently known as DRC was came into being from Nigeria by Bantus in 6th century. Democratic Republic of Congo had different names during the course of history like Congo, Belgian Congo, Congo Free State, Kingdom of Congo and Zaire.

Leopold II of Belgium was the first person in modern history; that deprived citizens of Congo from their freedom and controlled the affairs of the country through a non-governmental organization named as Association Internationale African. During his regime, the land of Congo has become the most scandalous state of the world. Leopold II relinquished his control over the region and it was taken over by the parliament of Belgium in 1908. Finally, Congo secured her independence from Belgium in 1960.

At the time of its independence, Congo was a fragile state; surrounded by tribal rivalries. Tribal elders were stronger than the federal government. No bureaucratic infrastructure was available to run the affairs of the country. Literacy rate was at the bottom. Nationalist, Patrice Lumumba was emerged as Prime Minister and pro-West Joseph Ksavubu elevated as the president of Democratic Republic of Congo after the parliamentary elections of 1960. The nationalist segment of armed forces initiated a mutiny against European officer on July 5, 1960. The capital of Congo witnessed mass murders and incidents of looting in the wake of this mutiny.

United Nations sent 20, 000 peacekeepers to protect the lives of European and avert the upheaval. During this turmoil, the country’s second richest province, Kasai, announced its independence from the federation. (Michela, 2001) At this juncture of the history, the Prime Minister, Patrice Lumumba contacted the president of USSR, Nikita Khrushchev and sought his help for defeating rebels and militants. USSR showed readiness to help the government of Congo and promised to provide sophisticated weapons to the forces loyal to Lumumba.

As it was the era of cold war, hence the USA was ready to counter the strategic move of USSR. The peacekeepers of United Nations had been asked to foil any attempt of Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba to import Russian weaponry.

Works Cited

Guest, Robert. (2005). The Shackled Continent, London: Pan Macmillan. p. 11.

Ibid. pp. 35-37

Ibid. pp. 143-145

Wrong, Michela. (2001). In the Footstep of Mr. Kurtz, Harper Perennial. New York: pp. 45-49

Ibid. pp. 144-146

Shillington, Kevin (2005), History of Africa, p. 2. Rev. 2nd ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Davidson, Basil (1991), Africa In History: Themes and Outlines, pp. 30-33. Revised and expanded ed. New York: Simon & Schuster.

http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/sppl_e/sppl283_e.htm accessed on 26.04.2014.

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