Based on the principles of Confucius, the primary function of the education was the provision of proper methodology for training exemplary persons (junzi). This process of training individuals involved constant self-improvement and continuous social interaction, as conventional educators believed that education must involve morality and should create a superior man that will avoid violence, as well as dogmatic and uneven assumptions (Confucius, 2009). Nowadays, many Confucius centers are functioning in different parts of China and Europe with the motive of promoting Chinese cultural values and principles. One example of this practice is the Confucius center in the City of Braga, Portugal, which not only develops programs to educate people about Chinese culture.
However, also provides financial aid to students coming from low-income backgrounds intending to study Chinese language and culture in Portugal or China. Swindall (2007) questioned the idea of "metamorphosis" of Chinese higher education, taking into account the country's indigenous tradition of higher education, and its subsequent reforms under Western, republican, and Soviet influences. This author also mentioned that the centralized system of higher education in China imposed in the 1950s revealed itself as inadequate “ for supplying talent after economic reconstruction and social progress several decades later” (Swindall, 2007).
It is an observation that the outcome of the influence of a close regime was lack of public participation in matters concerning “ higher education, administrative barriers from inflexible departmental and regional boundaries” (Swindall, 2007, p. 1). The universities were extremely similar in the way of their organization, as well as the curricula that were monotonous, resulting in misuse of resources awfully (Swindall, 2007). However, the country is now experiencing a new era of changes in the policies of the higher education that is involving discussion.
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