Cognition & Learning – Term Paper Example

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

Repeated numbers that were closer together had a much higher likelihood of being remembered. Some numbers were remembered that appeared further apart and later on in the list but these likely made it in to long-term memory (as cited in Anderson, 2004). 2. The more practice you can pack into a given time period the better. This statement is at variance, meaning false. Although it is better to increase the frequency of encoding information into the working and long- term memory by doing more practice, “packing” it in a given period of time does not do any good.

Actually, there should be a time span in between practices while increasing the frequency of practice to stimulate repeated encoding of information. The time component is essential in order to process information into long- term memory. Although by virtue of recency, people may find it beneficial to study a few hours before an examination. However, this information cannot be stored in long- term memory and disappears once the exam is over, thus compromising the whole learning experience. There is no question whether more practicing can improve learning, but there should be enough time given to accomplish the whole process of storage into long- term memory. Cognitive Theories The Power of Learning.

This theory states that memory can be enhanced by frequent practicing and recalling of specific information. However, it is not suggested that this enormous amount of practice need to be “packed” in a given period of time. To store information into long- term memory, there should be enough time of practice and recalling. Stages of Skill Acquisition (Fitts and Posner, 1967). Automaticity is the ultimate aim of restoring information in the brain.

This means that once a certain cognitive memory is stored and retrieved tremendously by frequent practice in longer periods of time, the associated task becomes automatic. In the first stage called cognitive stage, a series of facts are committed to a memory. These facts will then be elaborated in the second stage, called the associative stage. “The general effect of practice is to reduce the central cognitive component of information processing. When one has practiced the central cognitive component of a task so much that the task requires little or no thought, we say that the task is automatic” (as cited in Anderson, 2004).

Indeed, time is needed to master a skill. Neural growth. The essential component of learning in adults can be associated with the continuous neural growth.

References

Anderson, John R. (2000). Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications (5th ed.). New York: Worth Publishing.

Baddeley Alan. D. (1986). Working Memory. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

Brandsford, John D. (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience and School (Expanded ed.). Washington: National Academy Press.

Broadbent, D. (1958). Perception and Communication. London: Pergamon Press.

Cherry, E. Colin (1953). Some Experiments on the Recognition of Speech, with One and with Two Ears. Journal of Acoustic Society of America, 25 (5): 975–979.

Moray, N. P. (1959). Attention in dichotic listening: Affective cues and the influence of instructions. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 11, 56–60.

Smyth, Mary M., Alan F. Collins, Peter E. Morris, and Philip Levy. (2000). Cognition in Action (2nd ed.). East Sussex: Psychology Press.

Sperling, George (1963). A model for visual memory tasks. Human Factors, 5, 19–31.

Treisman, A., 1964. Selective attention in man. British Medical Bulletin, 20, 12-16.

Treisman, A. M., & Gelade, G. (1980). A feature integration theory of attention. Cognitive psychology, 12, 97-136.

Tulving, E., & Thompson, D. M. (1973). Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory. Psychological Review, 80, 352-373.

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us