After the discussion the person was selected to be the leader of the community and it was Abu Bakr. He was given the title of Caliph. A Caliph was regarded as the “Trusty” or “Agent” of God. Out of the religious need, the political system was established in Arabian Peninsula and the community chaos thus ended. The political system thus placed on the foundation of religion. Christianity was prevalent in Middle East before the rise of Islam. But in Muslim Spain some period was there in which intolerance towards Christianity became so strong that it resulted religious persecutions.
Islamic laws there, were not allowing Jews as well as Christians to promote their religious faith in public. But these prohibitions affected Christian as compared to Jews. That might be the reason according to Reza Aslan that Christianity disappeared from the Islamic region. On the other hand the least affected Jews became prosperous and their community increased. Islam and Christianity are the two religions connected with each other historically and traditionally. The two religions have their origin in the Middle East itself.
Islam started spreading and expanding hastily in all over Middle East after the death of Prophet Muhammad. Christianity also spread in Europe after the fall of Roman Empire. Some have opined that the fall of Roman Empire occurred due to the spread of Christianity. The establishment of Christianity brought social anarchy and disorder. Though it could be a coincidence, but Christianity had definitely played a crucial role in throwing out the roots of Mighty Roman Empire after its growth. At the same time Europe underwent a political change with the fall of Roman Empire in Western and Central of Europe.
A new state system was developed which was totally different from the classical Roman Empire. Though two different religions we find some similar incidents between Christianity and Islam. The common sect in the conflict of both Islam and Christianity was Jew. The Sect or other group Conflict: The conflict between two sects happened in the medieval age in both Europe and Middle East. In Europe the Catholic Church was striving for its identity of Christianity whereas in Middle East the Kharijites were striving for the identity of Islam.
After the spread of Islam a new sect emerged which was known as Kharijites. Kharijites were the supporters of the forth Caliph Ali b. Abi Talib. This community was intensely conscious about the identity of Islam. This group was obsessed in distinguishing between Muslims and non-Muslim.
1. Aslan Reza, “No God But God.”
2. Moore R.I. “Formation of a Persecuting Society”